When selection trumps persistence. The lasting effect of missionary education in South Africa
Johan Fourie & Christie Swanepoel
To estimate the long-term, persistent effects of missionary education requires two strong assumptions: that mission station settlement is uncorrelated with
other economic variables, such as soil quality and access to markets, and 2) that selection into (and out of) mission stations is unimportant. Both these
assumptions are usually not sufficiently addressed, which renders the interpretation of the persistent effects of mission stations suspect. We use an 1849
mission census of the Cape Colony in South Africa to test whether, controlling for location and selection, mission station education can explain education
outcomes 147 years later. Our first set of results show that Black and Coloured residents of districts with a mission station are today likely to attain more
years of schooling than those in districts with no stations. In addition, when only modern-day controls are included, education seems to be the mechanism
that explains this persistence. However, when we control for selection in 1849, literacy loses its explanatory power. Education outcomes may be highly
persistent – even in the face of active repression by apartheid authorities – but the key factor is early selection and not education persistence.
JEL CODES: N37, I25
Keywords: missionaries, South Africa, Protestant, Cape Colony
'Son excuse est dans sa jeunesse.' Jongeren en jeugddelinquentie in het Gentse Quartier de Discipline vanuit een gezinsperspectief, 1887-1921
The changing perceptions of youth and juvenile delinquency are examined from the bottom-up perspective of the family, using the case of the Quartier
de Discipline, an institution for the re-education of juvenile delinquents.
Petitions written to obtain a forehanded release are used to examine how families represented themselves relative to the standards of their time. Their
arguments reveal that juveniles were still expected to contribute to the family income. The employment of juveniles was deemed to be useful to keep them
away from the street. People started to recognize juvenile delinquents as victims of their social environment. Parents clearly adapted themselves to the
changing conceptions about juvenile delinquency. They referred increasingly to the importance of good upbringing and explained the committed crime
with external factors.
Elites, 'patrimonial state' en sociaal kapitaal. De Gezworene Meente van Groningen na de aansluiting bij de Republiek.
Marike D. Peterzon
According to many historians, family and state were closely interlocked in the Dutch Republic. In this article this relation is studied in line with Robert
Putnams’ ideas of bonding and bridging social capital. On the basis of the careers of the members of the Sworn Council we study wether city governance
was in hands of a few families and how relations with the broader civic community were established. It appeared that during the seventeenth
century the Sworn Council acted as a part of a vivid civic culture which generated bridging social capital.
Fighting a foregone conclusion. Local interest groups, West Indian merchants, and St. Eustatius, 1780-1810
Jessica Vance Roitman & Han Jordaan
After the island of St. Eustatius was sacked by the British during the Fourth Anglo Dutch War (1780-1784), there were fierce debates as to how to restore
its prosperity. These debates illustrate the workings of locally-based (colonial) interest groups in the Dutch Atlantic. These local interest groups have been
ignored by historians, who have fixated on whether there was a West Indian lobby similar to the one in Great Britain. This article shows that the suggestions
merchants on St. Eustatius made as to how to rebuild the wealth of the once prosperous ‘emporium to the world’ were part of larger debates in the
Dutch Republic about how best to govern its colonies in the rapidly changing ‘post-mercantilist’ world at the end of the eighteenth century.