Citizenship in Early Modern China. A Commentary to Maarten Prak, Citizens Without Nations:
AbstractThis article comments on the discussion of pre-modern Chinese citizenship in Maarten Prak’s Citizens without Nations. It confirms the conclusion drawn by Prak that many elements of European citizenship were also present in China, but raises questions about two aspects: the presumed absence of formal citizenship in China and the position of Chinese cities within a national administrative structure. On the first of these points the article shows that formal civilian status implied rights such as the protection of person and property in China as well as in Europe. On the second issue, it demonstrates that the authorities in Chinese cities, especially in periods when state power was relatively weak, depended on cooperation with self-organized local institutions, and that these also included organizations for self-defense.
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
a) Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
b) Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
c) Authors are permitted to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process.
Authors are explicitly encouraged to deposit their published article in their institutional repository.